Hematology tests consist of tests on the blood, blood proteins, and blood-producing organs. These tests can evaluate a range of blood conditions which include infection, anemia, inflammation, hemophilia, blood-clotting disorders, leukemia, and the response of the body to chemotherapy treatments. Here we are going to discuss what does hematology test for and the types of hematology tests.
What does hematology test for?
Types of hematology tests:
Hematology tests are of two types;
- CBC or complete blood count test
- ESR or erythrocyte sedimentation test
The complete blood count test can tell the doctor a lot about a patient’s overall health. Hematology test for CBC. This test measures the following things:
Common CBC tests
- White blood cell count (WBC)
- Red blood cell count (RBC)
- Platelet count.
- Hematocrit red blood cell volume (HCT)
- Hemoglobin concentration (HB). This is an oxygen-carrying protein in RBCs.
- Differential white blood count.
- Red blood cell indices (measurements).
White blood cells (WBCs)
White blood cells can help to fight infections. If we have high WBC levels, tell our doctor that we have inflammation or infection somewhere in our body. If it’s low, we could be at risk for infection.
The normal range of white blood cells in the human body is 4,500 to 10,000 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). If the WBC count is 13000 or more, it means a person has bacterial pneumonia.
(A microliter is considered a very small amount – one-millionth of a liter).
RBC (red blood cell count)
This is the number of red blood cells a person has. These are imperative as they deliver oxygen through your body. They also help the body carry carbon dioxide. If an individual’s RBC count is too low, he may have anemia or an alternative condition. (If we have anemia, our blood has fewer red blood cells than normal.) The normal range of RBC for men is 4.5 million to 5.9 million cells/mcL; for women, it is 4.1 million to 5.1 million cells/mcL.
Hb or Hgb (hemoglobin)
Hemoglobin is a kind of protein in our blood that holds oxygen. The normal range of hemoglobin for men is 14 to 17.5 grams per deciliter (gm/dL); for women, it’s 12.3 to 15.3 gm/dL.
The hemoglobin test is usually done to check for anemia, typically along with a hematocrit or as a component of a complete blood count (CBC). The test may be used to screen for, diagnose, or screen a number of conditions and diseases that affect red blood cells (RBCs) and/or the total hemoglobin in the blood.
This value gives information about how much of our blood is contained in red blood cells. A low score on the range scale may be a mark that we have too little iron. Iron is the mineral that helps to produce red blood cells.
A high score could mean we are dehydrated or have another condition. The normal range of HCT for men is between 41.5% and 50.4%. For women, the range of HCT is between 36.9% and 44.6%.
MCV (mean corpuscular volume)
MCV is the normal size of our red blood cells. If the size of RBCs is bigger than normal then our MCV goes up. That could happen if we have low vitamin B12 or folate levels. If our red blood cells are smaller, we could have a sort of anemia. A standard-range MCV score is 80 to 96.
Platelets play an important role in clotting. This test measures the number of platelets in our blood. The normal range of platelets in our body is 150,000 to 450,000 platelets/mcL
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
The sedimentation rate is also known as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). It is a blood test that can expose inflammatory activity in our body. A sedimentation rate test is not a stand-alone diagnostic tool, but it can help our doctor diagnose or monitor the development of the inflammatory disease. Hematology test for ESR.
When our blood is placed in a tall, thin tube, red blood cells (erythrocytes) progressively settle to the bottom. Inflammation can cause the cells to cluster. As these clumps are denser than individual cells, they settle to the bottom more rapidly.
The sedimentation rate test monitors the distance red blood cells fall in a test tube in one hour. The farther the red blood cells have settled to the bottom, the greater the inflammatory response of our immune system.
Results from our sed ESR test will be stated in the distance in millimeters (mm) that RBCs have descended in 1 hour (hr). The normal range of ESR is 0-22 mm/hr for men and 0-29 mm/hr for women. The upper threshold for a
Normal sed rate value may differ somewhat from one medical practice to another.
Our sed rate is one piece of information to help our doctor check our health. We have to talk to our doctor about what your ESR rate results mean in light of our symptoms and the results of our other diagnostic tests.
Accuracy of test results
A number of circumstances can influence the properties of blood, thus affecting how quickly red blood cells sink in a sample of blood. Therefore, information about inflammatory disease — what our doctor wants to learn from the sed rate test — can be hidden by the influence of other conditions. These complicating factors include:
- Advanced age
- Kidney problems
- Thyroid disease
- Some cancers, such as multiple myeloma
See also Indirect and sandwich Elisa.